List Of crack Passwords

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List Of crack Passwords

I am releasing CrackStation’s main password cracking dictionary (1,493,677,782 words, 15GB) for download.

What’s in the list?

The list contains every wordlist, dictionary, and password database leak that I could find on the internet (and I spent a LOT of time looking). It also contains every word in the Wikipedia databases (pages-articles, retrieved 2010, all languages) as well as lots of books from Project Gutenberg. It also includes the passwords from some low-profile database breaches that were being sold in the underground years ago.

The format of the list is a standard text file sorted in non-case-sensitive alphabetical order. Lines are separated with a newline «\n» character.

You can test the list without downloading it by giving SHA256 hashes to the free hash cracker or to @PlzCrack on twitter. Here’s a tool for computing hashes easily. Here are the results of cracking LinkedIn’s and eHarmony’s password hash leaks with the list.

The list is responsible for cracking about 30% of all hashes given to CrackStation’s free hash cracker, but that figure should be taken with a grain of salt because some people try hashes of really weak passwords just to test the service, and others try to crack their hashes with other online hash crackers before finding CrackStation. Using the list, we were able to crack 49.98% of one customer’s set of 373,000 human password hashes to motivate their move to a better salting scheme.

Step 1: Pay what you want.

The wordlist is being sold using a «pay what you want» model. That means you can pay absolutely any amount of money you want for the wordlist. Even nothing. Use the PayPal donate button, Bitcoin address, or Litecoin address below to make your payment.

How much should I pay?

Think about the following points when deciding how much to pay:

  • If I wasn’t doing a «pay what want» I would set the price at $5.
  • The money will be used for open source security research and development projects.
  • It took about 3 weeks of full-time work to make this dictionary (searching, downloading, scripting, processing).
  • I will not be offended by small payments.
  • If you have no money or don’t want to pay, seeding the torrents and sharing this page with your friends is appreciated!

Step 2: Download!

Note: To download the torrents, you will need a torrent client like Transmission (for Linux and Mac), or uTorrent for Windows.

Checksums (crackstation.txt.gz)

Smaller Wordlist (Human Passwords Only)

I got some requests for a wordlist with just the «real human» passwords leaked from various website databases. This smaller list contains just those passwords. There are about 64 million passwords in this list!

Checksums (crackstation-human-only.txt.gz)

Sharing and Licensing

You are allowed to share these lists! They are both licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license. If you do share them, I would appreciate it if you included a link to this page.

In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from data that have been stored in or transmitted by a computer system. A common approach (brute-force attack) is to try guesses repeatedly for the password and check them against an available cryptographic hash of the password. [1]

The purpose of password cracking might be to help a user recover a forgotten password (installing an entirely new password is less of a security risk, but it involves System Administration privileges), to gain unauthorized access to a system, or as a preventive measure by system administrators to check for easily crackable passwords. On a file-by-file basis, password cracking is utilized to gain access to digital evidence for which a judge has allowed access but the particular file’s access is restricted.

The time to crack a password is related to bit strength (see password strength), which is a measure of the password’s entropy, and the details of how the password is stored. Most methods of password cracking require the computer to produce many candidate passwords, each of which is checked. One example is brute-force cracking, in which a computer tries every possible key or password until it succeeds. More common methods of password cracking, such as dictionary attacks, pattern checking, word list substitution, etc. attempt to reduce the number of trials required and will usually be attempted before brute force. Higher password bit strength exponentially increases the number of candidate passwords that must be checked, on average, to recover the password and reduces the likelihood that the password will be found in any cracking dictionary. [2]

The ability to crack passwords using computer programs is also a function of the number of possible passwords per second which can be checked. If a hash of the target password is available to the attacker, this number can be in the billions or trillions per second, since an offline attack is possible. If not, the rate depends on whether the authentication software limits how often a password can be tried, either by time delays, CAPTCHAs, or forced lockouts after some number of failed attempts. Another situation where quick guessing is possible is when the password is used to form a cryptographic key. In such cases, an attacker can quickly check to see if a guessed password successfully decodes encrypted data.

For some kinds of password hash, ordinary desktop computers can test over a hundred million passwords per second using password cracking tools running on a general purpose CPU and billions of passwords per second using GPU-based password cracking tools [3] [4] [5] (See: John the Ripper benchmarks). [6] The rate of password guessing depends heavily on the cryptographic function used by the system to generate password hashes. A suitable password hashing function, such as bcrypt, is many orders of magnitude better than a naive function like simple MD5 or SHA. A user-selected eight-character password with numbers, mixed case, and symbols, with commonly selected passwords and other dictionary matches filtered out, reaches an estimated 30-bit strength, according to NIST. 2 30 is only one billion permutations [7] and would be cracked in seconds if the hashing function is naive. When ordinary desktop computers are combined in a cracking effort, as can be done with botnets, the capabilities of password cracking are considerably extended. In 2002, distributed.net successfully found a 64-bit RC5 key in four years, in an effort which included over 300,000 different computers at various times, and which generated an average of over 12 billion keys per second. [8]

Graphics processors can speed up password cracking by a factor of 50 to 100 over general purpose computers. As of 2011, available commercial products claim the ability to test up to 2,800,000,000 passwords a second on a standard desktop computer using a high-end graphics processor. [9] Such a device can crack a 10 letter single-case password in one day. The work can be distributed over many computers for an additional speedup proportional to the number of available computers with comparable GPUs. [ citation needed ]

Despite their capabilities, desktop CPUs are slower at cracking passwords than purpose-built password breaking machines. In 1998, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) built a dedicated password cracker using ASICs, as opposed to general purpose CPUs. Their machine, Deep Crack, broke a DES 56-bit key in 56 hours, testing over 90 billion keys per second. [10] In 2010, the Georgia Tech Research Institute developed a method of using GPGPU to crack passwords, coming up with a minimum secure password length of 12 characters. [11] [12] [13]

Passwords that are difficult to remember will reduce the security of a system because (a) users might need to write down or electronically store the password using an insecure method, (b) users will need frequent password resets and (c) users are more likely to re-use the same password. Similarly, the more stringent requirements for password strength, e.g. «have a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters and digits» or «change it monthly», the greater the degree to which users will subvert the system. [14]

In «The Memorability and Security of Passwords», [15] Jeff Yan et al. examines the effect of advice given to users about a good choice of password. They found that passwords based on thinking of a phrase and taking the first letter of each word are just as memorable as naively selected passwords, and just as hard to crack as randomly generated passwords. Combining two unrelated words is another good method. Having a personally designed «Algorithm» for generating obscure passwords is another good method. In the latest improvements, more and more people are noticing change in the way that passwords are secured.

However, asking users to remember a password consisting of a “mix of uppercase and lowercase characters” is similar to asking them to remember a sequence of bits: hard to remember, and only a little bit harder to crack (e.g. only 128 times harder to crack for 7-letter passwords, less if the user simply capitalizes one of the letters). Asking users to use «both letters and digits» will often lead to easy-to-guess substitutions such as ‘E’ → ‘3’ and ‘I’ → ‘1’, substitutions which are well known to attackers. Similarly typing the password one keyboard row higher is a common trick known to attackers.

Research detailed in an April 2015 paper by several professors at Carnegie Mellon University shows that people’s choices of password structure often follow several known patterns. As a result, passwords may be much more easily cracked than their mathematical probabilities would otherwise indicate. Passwords containing one digit, for example, disproportionately include it at the end of the password. [16]

On July 16, 1998, CERT reported an incident where an attacker had found 186,126 encrypted passwords. By the time they were discovered, they had already cracked 47,642 passwords. [17]

In December 2009, a major password breach of the Rockyou.com website occurred that led to the release of 32 million passwords. The attacker then leaked the full list of the 32 million passwords (with no other identifiable information) to the internet. Passwords were stored in cleartext in the database and were extracted through a SQL Injection vulnerability. The Imperva Application Defense Center (ADC) did an analysis on the strength of the passwords. [18]

In June 2011, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) experienced a security breach that led to the public release of first and last names, usernames, and passwords for more than 11,000 registered users of their e-bookshop. The data were leaked as part of Operation AntiSec, a movement that includes Anonymous, LulzSec, as well as other hacking groups and individuals. [19]

On July 11, 2011, Booz Allen Hamilton, a large American Consulting firm that does a substantial amount of work for the Pentagon, had their servers hacked by Anonymous and leaked the same day. «The leak, dubbed ‘Military Meltdown Monday,’ includes 90,000 logins of military personnel—including personnel from USCENTCOM, SOCOM, the Marine Corps, various Air Force facilities, Homeland Security, State Department staff, and what looks like private sector contractors.» [20] These leaked passwords wound up being hashed in Sha1, and were later decrypted and analyzed by the ADC team at Imperva, revealing that even military personnel look for shortcuts and ways around the password requirements. [21]

On July 18, 2011, Microsoft Hotmail banned the password: «123456». [22]

In July 2015, a group calling itself «The Impact Team» stole the user data of Ashley Madison. Many passwords were hashed using both the relatively strong bcrypt algorithm and the weaker MD5 hash. Attacking the latter algorithm allowed some 11 million plaintext passwords to be recovered.

The best method of preventing a password from being cracked is to ensure that attackers cannot get access even to the hashed password. For example, on the Unix operating system, hashed passwords were originally stored in a publicly accessible file /etc/passwd. On modern Unix (and similar) systems, on the other hand, they are stored in the shadow password file /etc/shadow, which is accessible only to programs running with enhanced privileges (i.e., «system» privileges). This makes it harder for a malicious user to obtain the hashed passwords in the first instance, however many collections of password hashes have been stolen despite such protection. Another strong approach is to combine a site-specific secret key with the password hash, which prevents plaintext password recovery even if the hashed values are purloined. A third approach is to use key derivation functions that reduce the rate at which passwords can be guessed. [23] : 5.1.1.2 Unfortunately, many common Network Protocols transmit passwords in cleartext or use weak challenge/response schemes. [24] [25]

Modern Unix Systems have replaced traditional DES-based password hashing function crypt() with stronger methods such as bcrypt and scrypt. [26] Other systems have also begun to adopt these methods. For instance, the Cisco IOS originally used a reversible Vigenère cipher to encrypt passwords, but now uses md5-crypt with a 24-bit salt when the «enable secret» command is used. [27] These newer methods use large salt values which prevent attackers from efficiently mounting offline attacks against multiple user accounts simultaneously. The algorithms are also much slower to execute which drastically increases the time required to mount a successful offline attack. [28]

Many hashes used for storing passwords, such as MD5 and the SHA family, are designed for fast computation and efficient implementation in hardware. As a result, they are ineffective in preventing password cracking, especially with methods like rainbow tables. Using key stretching Algorithms, such as PBKDF2, to form password hashes can significantly reduce the rate at which passwords can be tested.

Solutions like a security token give a formal proof answer by constantly shifting password. Those solutions abruptly reduce the timeframe for brute forcing (attacker needs to break and use the password within a single shift) and they reduce the value of the stolen passwords because of its short time validity.

In 2013 a long-term Password Hashing Competition was announced to choose a new, standard algorithm for password hashing. [29]

There are many password cracking software tools, but the most popular [30] are Aircrack, Cain and Abel, John the Ripper, Hashcat, Hydra, DaveGrohl and ElcomSoft. Many litigation support software packages also include password cracking functionality. Most of these packages employ a mixture of cracking strategies, algorithm with brute force and dictionary attacks proving to be the most productive. [ citation needed ]

The increased availability of computing power and beginner friendly automated password cracking software for a number of protection schemes has allowed the activity to be taken up by script kiddies. [31]

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A password is the secret word or phrase that is used for the authentication process in various applications. It is used to gain access to accounts and resources. A password protects our accounts or resources from unauthorized access.

What is Password Cracking?

Password cracking is the process of guessing or recovering a password from stored locations or from data transmission system. It is used to get a password for unauthorized access or to recover a forgotten password. In penetration testing, it is used to check the security of an application.

In recent years, computer programmers have been trying to create algorithms for password cracking in less time. Most of the password cracking tools try to login with every possible combination of words. If login is successful, it means the password was found. If the password is strong enough with a combination of numbers, characters and special characters, this cracking method may take hours to weeks or months. A few password cracking tools use a dictionary that contains passwords. These tools are totally dependent on the dictionary, so success rate is lower.

In the past few years, programmers have developed many password cracking tools. Every tool has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this post, we are covering a few of the most popular password cracking tools.

1. Brutus

Brutus is one of the most popular remote online password cracking tools. It claims to be the fastest and most flexible password cracking tool. This tool is free and is only available for Windows systems. It was released back in October 2000.

It supports HTTP (Basic Authentication), HTTP (HTML Form/CGI), POP3, FTP, SMB, Telnet and other types such as IMAP, NNTP, NetBus, etc. You can also create your own authentication types. This tool also supports multi-stage authentication engines and is able to connect 60 simultaneous targets. It also has resume and load options. So, you can pause the attack process any time and then resume whenever you want to resume.

This tool has not been updated for many years. Still, it can be useful for you.

2. RainbowCrack

RainbowCrack is a hash cracker tool that uses a large-scale time-memory trade off process for faster password cracking than traditional brute force tools. Time-memory trade off is a computational process in which all plain text and hash pairs are calculated by using a selected hash algorithm. After computation, results are stored in the rainbow table. This process is very time consuming. But, once the table is ready, it can crack a password must faster than brute force tools.

You also do not need to generate rainbow tablets by yourselves. Developers of RainbowCrack have also generated LM rainbow tables, NTLM rainbow tables, MD5 rainbow tables and Sha1 rainbow tables. Like RainbowCrack, these tables are also available for free. You can download these tables and use for your password cracking processes.

A few paid rainbow tables are also available, which you can buy from here: http://project-rainbowcrack.com/buy.php

This tool is available for both Windows and Linux systems.

3. Wfuzz

Wfuzz is another web application password cracking tool that tries to crack passwords with brute forcing. It can also be used to find hidden resources like directories, servlets and scripts. This tool can also identify different kind of injections including SQL Injection, XSS Injection, LDAP Injection, etc in Web applications.

Key features of Wfuzz password cracking tool:

  • Capability of injection via multiple points with multiple dictionary
  • Output in colored HTML
  • Post, headers and authentication data brute forcing
  • Proxy and SOCK Support, Multiple Proxy Support
  • Multi Threading
  • Brute force HTTP Password
  • POST and GET Brute forcing
  • Time delay between requests
  • Cookies fuzzing

4. Cain and Abel

Cain and Abel is a well-known password cracking tool that is capable of handling a variety of tasks. The most notable thing is that the tool is only available for Windows platforms. It can work as sniffer in the network, cracking encrypted passwords using the dictionary attack, recording VoIP conversations, brute force attacks, cryptanalysis attacks, revealing password boxes, uncovering cached passwords, decoding scrambled passwords, and analyzing routing protocols.

Cain and Abel does not exploit any vulnerability or bugs. It only covers security weakness of protocols to grab the password. This tool was developed for network administrators, security professionals, forensics staff, and penetration testers.

5. John the Ripper

John the Ripper is another well-known free open source password cracking tool for Linux, Unix and Mac OS X. A Windows version is also available. This tool can detect weak passwords. A pro version of the tool is also available, which offers better features and native packages for target operating systems. You can also download Openwall GNU/*/Linux that comes with John the Ripper.

6. THC Hydra

THC Hydra is a fast network logon password cracking tool. When it is compared with other similar tools, it shows why it is faster. New modules are easy to install in the tool. You can easily add modules and enhance the features. It is available for Windows, Linux, Free BSD, Solaris and OS X. This tool supports various network protocols. Currently it supports Asterisk, AFP, Cisco AAA, Cisco auth, Cisco enable, CVS, Firebird, FTP, HTTP-FORM-GET, HTTP-FORM-POST, HTTP-GET, HTTP-HEAD, HTTP-PROXY, HTTPS-FORM-GET, HTTPS-FORM-POST, HTTPS-GET, HTTPS-HEAD, HTTP-Proxy, ICQ, IMAP, IRC, LDAP, MS-SQL, MYSQL, NCP, NNTP, Oracle Listener, Oracle SID, Oracle, PC-Anywhere, PCNFS, POP3, POSTGRES, RDP, Rexec, Rlogin, Rsh, SAP/R3, SIP, SMB, SMTP, SMTP Enum, SNMP, SOCKS5, SSH (v1 and v2), Subversion, Teamspeak (TS2), Telnet, VMware-Auth, VNC and XMPP.

If you are a developer, you can also contribute to the tool’s development.

7. Medusa

Medusa is also a password cracking tool similar to THC Hydra. It claims to be a speedy parallel, modular and login brute forcing tool. It supports HTTP, FTP, CVS, AFP, IMAP, MS SQL, MYSQL, NCP, NNTP, POP3, PostgreSQL, pcAnywhere, rlogin, SMB, rsh, SMTP, SNMP, SSH, SVN, VNC, VmAuthd and Telnet. While cracking the password, host, username and password can be flexible input while performing the attack.

Medusa is a command line tool, so you need to learn commands before using the tool. Efficiency of the tool depends on network connectivity. On a local system, it can test 2000 passwords per minute.

With this tool, you can also perform a parallel attack. Suppose you want to crack passwords of a few email accounts simultaneously. You can specify the username list along with the password list.

Download Medusa here: http://www.foofus.net/jmk/tools/medusa-2.1.1.tar.gz

8. OphCrack

OphCrack is a free rainbow-table based password cracking tool for Windows. It is the most popular Windows password cracking tool, but can also be used on Linux and Mac systems. It cracks LM and NTLM hashes. For cracking Windows XP, Vista and Windows 7, free rainbow-tables are also available.

A live CD of OphCrack is also available to simplify the cracking. One can use the Live CD of OphCrack to crack Windows-based passwords. This tool is available for free.

Download free and premium rainbow tables for OphCrack here: http://ophcrack.sourceforge.net/tables.php

9. L0phtCrack

L0phtCrack is an alternative to OphCrack. It attempts to crack Windows password from hashes. For cracking passwords, it uses Windows workstations, network servers, primary domain controllers, and Active Directory. It also uses dictionary and brute force attacking for generating and guessing passwords. It was acquired by Symantec and discontinued in 2006. Later L0pht developers again re-acquired it and launched L0phtCrack in 2009.

It also comes with a schedule routine audit feature. One can set daily, weekly or monthly audits, and it will start scanning on the scheduled time.

10. Aircrack-NG

Aircrack-NG is a WiFi password cracking tool that can crack WEP or WPA passwords. It analyzes wireless encrypted packets and then tries to crack passwords via its cracking algorithm. It uses the FMS attack along with other useful attack techniques for cracking password. It is available for Linux and Windows systems. A live CD of Aircrack is also available.

If you want to use AirCrack NG for password cracking, read tutorials here: http://www.aircrack-ng.org/doku.php?id=getting_started

Download AirCrack-NG here: http://www.aircrack-ng.org/

How to create a password that is hard to crack

In this post, we have listed 10 password cracking tools. These tools try to crack passwords with different password cracking algorithms. Most of the password cracking tools are available for free. So, you should always try to have a strong password that is hard to crack by these password cracking tools. These are few tips you can try while creating a password.

The longer the password, the harder it is to crack: Password length is the most important factor. If you select a small password, password cracking tools can easily crack it by using few words combinations. A longer password will take a longer time in guessing. You’re your password at least 8 characters long.

Always use a combination of characters, numbers and special characters: This is another thing which makes passwords hard to crack. Password cracking tools try the combination of one by one. Have a combination of small characters, capital letters, and special characters. Suppose if you have only numbers in your password. Password cracking tools only need to guess numbers from 0-9. Here only length matters. But having a password combination of a-z, A-Z, 0-9 and other special characters with a good length will make it harder to crack. This kind of password sometimes takes weeks to crack.

Variety in passwords: One important thing you must always take care. Never use same password everywhere. Cyber criminals can steal passwords from one website and then try it on other websites too.

In case you are not sure about the strength of your password, you can check it from variety of online tools available for free. Try this official Microsoft Tool for checking the password strength.

What to avoid while selecting your password

There are a few things which were very common a few years back and still exist. Most of the password cracking tools start from there. Passwords that fall into this category are most easy to crack. These are the few password mistakes which you should avoid:

  • Never use a dictionary word
  • Avoid using your pet’s name, parent name, your phone number, driver’s license number or anything which is easy to guess.
  • Avoid using passwords with sequence or repeated characters: For Ex: 1111111, 12345678 or qwerty, asdfgh.

The top 11 worst passwords of 2012:

The list for 2013 is yet to be published.

Conclusion:

Interested in learning more about password cracking? Check out our Ethical Hacking training! Fill out the form below to receive pricing details and a course syllabus.

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The password is what makes your network, web accounts and email accounts safe from unauthorized access. These password cracking tools are proof that your passwords can be cracked easily if you are not selecting good passwords. In the article, we have listed every kind of password cracking tools, including web application password cracking tools, network password cracking tools, email password cracking tools, Windows password cracking tools and Wi-Fi password cracking tools. Security researchers use these tools to audit the security of their apps and check how to make their application secure against these tools. Cyber criminals also use these tools, but for wrong purposes. They use these password cracking tools to crack passwords of users and then access their data.

Now it is up to you. You can either use these tools for good work or bad. Although we never encourage using any educational information for any cyber crime. This post is only for educational purposes. If you are using any of these tools for cyber crimes, the author or website publishing the article will not be responsible. Learn things to know how you can be hacked and how to protect yourself.


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